The industrial revolution of the 19th century bypassed the Urals, and, by the end of the century, Yekaterinburg became a merchant backwoods. It was only the Trans-Siberian Railway that began to lead the city out of decline. But it was here, in 1918, while the Civil War raged in Russia, that the last Russian Emperor Nicholas II, together with his wife, children, and attendants were killed. The industrial Urals, loyal to the «Reds», became a place of exile for the Romanovs. Merchant Siberia had turned into a «White» stronghold, and, faced with an offensive from the «Whites», the Urals Soviet initiated a reprisal against the famous prisoners. The imperial family was held in the engineer Ipatiev’s house, that had been converted into a real prison. They were shot in the basement of this house by a team of Bolsheviks led by Yakov Yurovsky. Their bodies were transported outside the city and burned in Ganina Yama—an abandoned mine pit that had been built a very long time ago by a certain Ganya (Gabriel). Ipatiev House was demolished in the 1970s by none other than Boris Yeltsin, who was first secretary of Sverdlovsk Region at that time. In the city where the Soviets killed the Tsar, he made his political career and became the main gravedigger of the Soviets.